Video Capsule Endoscopy Promising for Diagnosis of Small Bowel Disease

Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has proved to be very effective in the diagnosis of several small bowel diseases including Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). This diagnostic procedure is performed in patients to determine the extent and the nature of the internal condition.

What is Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome?

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome or PJS is a kind of rare autosomal-dominant inherited condition that is characterized by the presence of mucocutaneous pigmentation, gastrointestinal hamartomas, and an enhanced risk of cancer. The patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome are 15 percent more likely to  suffer from intestinal cancer as compared to the people who do not suffer from this syndrome.

The occurrence is as rare as 1 in 25,000 to 300,000 births.

Signs and Symptoms of Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

The hamartomatous polyps that are characteristic of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome have a tendency of increased rates of cancer in various parts of the body. Although the polyps have a very low malignant tendency (less than 3 percent OHCM), the people suffering from this rare syndrome are at a greater risk of developing carcinomas of the liver, pancreas, lungs, breast, uterus, ovaries, testes, as well as other organs. The most common occurrence associated with this condition is an enhanced susceptibility of sex-cord stromal tumor associated with annular tubules in ovaries.

The average age at which the occurrence of this condition is diagnosed for the first time is 23. However, the lesions associated with the syndrome can be identified at the time of birth of the child.

Before reaching puberty, the child may present with mucocutaneous lesions on the palms, as well as soles. Bowel obstruction resulting from intussusceptions is the first presenting symptom.

Video Capsule Endoscopy in Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

As video capsule endoscopy is one of the finest diagnostic procedures to diagnose small bowel diseases, this procedure is considered one of the most effective procedures for examination of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

There are many studies that prove the effectiveness of this diagnostic procedure in this rare condition. There is evidence that showcases a positive result on the use of video capsule endoscopy in PJS patients with the removal of small intestinal polyps that had a diameter of more than 15 mm.

Earlier, small-bowel radiography techniques were considered as the best for the screening of small-bowel polyps. Later, video capsule endoscopy proved its efficiency to screen the polyps and became the leading diagnostic tool in this condition. Until today, VCE is used as the most effective screening tool of the polyps present in the small bowel.

According to the VCE provider, video capsule endoscopy should be an integral part of long-term managed of the asymptomatic patients of Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome because these patients suffer a higher susceptibility for small, as well as large, bowel neoplasia.

Along with video capsule endoscopy, MRI or magnetic resonance imaging is also considered as an efficient tool to screen the polyps. Another tool used in this condition is balloon enteroscopy.

The Bottom Line

Although there are other procedures for identification and screening of small bowel diseases like Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, video capsule endoscopy is the most promising one.

Video capsule endoscopy is an effective tool in identifying the polyps located in the duodenum, jejunum, as well as the ileum.